Every Rancher & Land Manager needs to watch this
supporter
Posted by Richard Bonine, Jr. (+14969) 8 years ago
This is well worth the 22 minutes you will spend to understand the process of desertification and what YOU can do about it.

I have the HIGHEST regard for Alan Savory. His message is so simple, and yet profound. He is unfortunately misunderstood, even in range management circles.

Range management is a subject where my true passion in life lies. Managing ground cover is one of the keys in making this process function. There are many simple and cost effective ways of monitoring and managing ground cover. You CANNOT manage that which you are not measuring. There is much work to do here in SE Montana and the western U.S. Enjoy!

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supporter
Posted by Jeri Dalbec (+3259) 8 years ago
Very interesting a powerful.
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Posted by Oddjob (+183) 8 years ago
Allan Savory's problem is that he is a heretic of the worst kind. One that has found a solution to a problem that flys in the face of the purveyors of the dogma. The ones who must feed at the trough of never-ending grant money provided courtesy of extortion from the poor tax-paying slob. The Chicken Little's who's "professional reputation" requires doom and gloom scenarios, even if they have to fake the data to keep the dough flowing.

Here's an interesting read on Allan Savory's work and thoughts.

http://www.rangemagazine....savory.htm
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banned
Posted by Al Borden (+246) 8 years ago
He looks like that whiny senator from back east that ran for president a few years back.
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moderator
founder
Posted by David Schott (+17169) 8 years ago
Joe Lieberman:

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supporter
Posted by Buck Showalter (+4462) 8 years ago
He does look like Joe Lieberman. I'm not going to watch the video, I'm sure it's just a rehashing of what I already know. Bacillus in chemtrails produces slime mold, something, something, BUCK N KICK!
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supporter
Posted by Jeri Dalbec (+3259) 8 years ago
I did not realize the gentleman's reputation when I watched the video. I thought it was interesting..the importance of cattle versus not having them, etc. It would be interesting to hear what EXACTLY he may be saying that is not true as per the knowledge of those of you who are probably experts. I have a tendency to take Richard's word for information like this since it is in his line of work.
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Posted by Joe Whalen (+614) 8 years ago
Yes, I'm sure it's important that Allan Savory physically resembles Sen. Lieberman and, yes, I'm sure it's equally important to take a few political potshots at those few sacred cows perceived to be standing in the way of progress against desertification. You'd think, however, that in a community serving as home to the Ft. Keogh USDA Range Research Laboratory and given the gravity of the problem of encroaching deserts that there might be more give-and-take on the merits of the HRM principles discussed in this clip.

I'm an advocate of holistic resource management(HRM) and agreed with much of the content and tone of this presentation that was sent to me last week by a local woolgrower. Savory's rest-rotation grazing theory was assigned reading in Adv. Beef Production at CSUF as far back as 1981. I was deeply impressed that in this video Savory brought an initially hostile audience (40,000 elephants slaughtered?) to its feet in an ovation by the end of his delivery. Yet his thinking is not without profound impacts for stockmen, wildlife biologists, range scientists and others. I know there are members of each of these groups watching this list.

My question for those viewing this clip is, "What do you see as some of the deal-breaking implications of HRM for resource managers and how should they be overcome in order to reduce desertification?"
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newbie
Posted by B Sauer (+7) 8 years ago
Thanks for posting this Richard. I have a small amount of experience with using his methods and they seem to work. I did a small research project on the application of his methods on the Charter Ranch in Yellowstone Co. back in the 80's and presented the results to the SRM annual meeting. Charters are still in business and still using his methods with success.They maintained and improved their range after a major range fire in 1984. Ray Bannister down at Wibaux does something like this except he uses alot of fences with lots of rest.

One of the main things Savory has accomplished is getting ranchers to think about their grass management. Even if you don't agree with him, a thinking person can't ignore what is happening or not happening as the case may be to a sizeable part of the worlds land area. The fundamental question is: Can water from precipitation get down into the root zone of the soil where it needs to go or not?
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Posted by Joe Whalen (+614) 8 years ago
Great question, Brad. In fact, as far as desert encroachment in the western U.S. goes, it's probably the most important question.



The photo above is taken from Fandango Pass looking down on the floor of Surprise Valley, my home country on the northwestern edge of the Great Basin. In the distance, you can see that the valley floor consists entirely of alkali lakebeds. They run 7 miles wide and 45 miles long. The soil there is effectively dead from high pH, despite the fact that the highest net energy alfalfa in the Intermountain region is grown between those lakebeds and the Warner Mtns.

I use this photo to illustrate your point that for a large portion of the western U.S. high sodium concentrations have rendered the soils largely impermeable to healthy root zone moisture. The basin/range geography as well as the evaporative chemistry and poor drainage associated with it seems primarily responsible for this form of desertification.

However, I have to think that if soil health were improved upstream of these basins using concentrated rest/rotation grazing that the rate of runoff onto these alkali beds could be reduced and, over time, some restoration could occur on the margins as pH is reduced and moisture access in the root zone is improved. Does that make any sense?
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Posted by Oddjob (+183) 8 years ago
Here's political for you, Range Manager Joe.

Allan Savory should be decorating a light pole for killing 40,000 elephants, but he escaped the rope because he was in the employ of a government entity, and of course, had "good intentions" for directing the slaughter. The same excuse that every Statist skates on. He's a one man walking ecological holocaust.

I will give him a C- for the effort to redeem himself, though. He has hit on an idea that a blind man would see if he could imagine in his wildest dreams, a correlation between the slaughter of 60 million buffalo and the ecological catastrophe of the Dust Bowl, 40 years later. Something no government "Range Manager" could ever conceive of.

But the best part of having Savory around is his proselytizing on holistic herd animal management. That drives the rabid anti-cattle, anti-human environmental nutjobs to absolute apoplexy.

That has some entertainment value.
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Posted by Joe Whalen (+614) 8 years ago
Oddjob, first you write:
"Allan Savory's problem is that he is a heretic of the worst kind. One that has found a solution to a problem that flys in the face of the purveyors of the dogma."


Then, you immediately follow with:
"The same excuse that every Statist (sic) skates on...He's a one man walking ecological holocaust."


Which is it, Oddjob? Is Savory a dogma-fighting problem solver, a statist environmental wrecking ball, both, or neither? And are you of one, two, three or more minds about the man and his work?

Or, have you simply been huffing too much Ayn Rand again down in the Beehive State?

[This message has been edited by Joe Whalen (7/7/2013)]
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founder
supporter
Posted by Amorette Allison (+11796) 8 years ago
Is this science or politics? And how come science has become political? Does one party practice gravity and the other not? Science is pretty objective stuff, unless it makes a person think, and then it becomes politics.
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supporter
Posted by Richard Bonine, Jr. (+14969) 8 years ago
It is biological science in the making, so it isn't like other science where all the rules are known. Alan Savory has some controversial ideas. But then so did Galleo and Copernicus. Some are perhaps trying to make it political, but it really doesn't need to be this way. I have a lot to say about Alan Savory and Holistic management. But it is now past my bedtime and I need some sleep.

Stay tuned.
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Posted by Oddjob (+183) 8 years ago
"And are you of one, two, three or more minds about the man and his work?"

Yes.
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supporter
Posted by MRH (+1495) 8 years ago
Joe, check your email.

Marshall
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Posted by Joe Whalen (+614) 8 years ago
I was unnecessarily sharp with you yesterday, Oddjob, and I apologize.
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supporter
Posted by Richard Bonine, Jr. (+14969) 8 years ago
As I said previously, Alan Savory has some controversial ideas. But then so did Galleo and Copernicus. In my experience, one is always wise to chew the meat and spit out the bones. It doesn't really matter whether it is Alan Savory, Frederic Clements, Robert Whitaker, etc. There is some truth in what they are saying and some points where they have missed it.

Desertification is a real phenomenon occurring globally. It is observable in Southeast MT. Some of you may remember a period of time when grazing did not occur out at Woodruff park. What happened? Well, the vegetation got very decadent and then shifts in the plant community started occurring toward annual grasses, notably, Cheatgrass. The Pumpkin Creek recreation area is another example where desertification is evident.

There are likely many causes for desertification. I believe that Savory has identified a very important component in the desertification process with his thought about the removal of livestock and wildlife. I think he is spot-on about using livestock and wildlife as a means of restoration. (There are significant changes in Willow populations Yellowstone park due to the re-introduction of wolves.) I still maintain that another factor was too many people in the 70's forgot that an AUM by definition is a 1000 lbs cow with calf at side, and continued to run the same number even though the livestock were 1400+ "exotic" breeds. (If that makes me "BIG COW BONINE" in the eyes of Cactus Plains, so be it. ) The ranges were overgrazed.

I have direct experience with Savory's method of grazing, in several different geographic locations, albeit all mine reclamation situations. Cows are by far the best reclamation tool available. I don't think it is possible to do excellent reclamation work without cows. Whether it is mine reclamation or over-grazed rangeland, we are dealing with a drastically disturbed environment. As long as you have available water, this process will work.

This method requires up-front planning and dicipline to stick to the plan and yet be adaptive when necessary. A vegetation inventory is a must to know how long you can be in an area and how much ground cover is present.

One of the common mistakes with this method is using too big of a pasture and not keeping the livestock a little crowded. When crowded, cows will change their posture and tend to dig a little more with their hooves. This trampling action helps incorporate litter into the soil surface where it can be used to form organic matter. It's like dancing on an empty dance floor vs a full floor. When there are lots of people on the floor, you change your posture more to the ball of your foot rather than being flat-footed. Crowded cows behave the same way.

I have used high intensity-short duration grazing in MO and KS. The results are published in the 1995 ASMR proceedings:

"High Intensity, Short Duration Rotational Grazing on Reclaimed Cool Season Fescue/ Legume
Pastures: I. System Development. W. R. Erickson and K. E. Carlson. p. 202

High Intensity, Short Duration Rotational Grazing on Reclaimed Cool Season Fescue/ Legume Pastures: II. Forage Production, Soil and Plant Tissue Comparisons Between Grazed and Ungrazed Pastures. K. E. Carlson, W. R. Erickson and R. C. Bonine. p. 215"


This method worked well in KS and MO. It is easy to be successful when you have 20+ inches of rain. We successfully mitigated significant erosion issues without resorting to designed structures. There was significant differences in soil nitrogen and phosphorus between grazed and ungrazed paddocks.

I've also used this same process in New Mexico. It worked pretty well there too. Much greater attention is required to move livestock in a timely fashion in arid climates. One of the pitfalls of this process is trusting your eyes rather than the data and plan you created. Savory has sort of a bad reputation on the Navajo Nation, because people divided up pastures and put livestock in, but didn't rotate fast enough or stick with the plan. They ended up with a bunch of overgrazed land.

Last spring I used this process on a mine just north of Gillette. It worked very well there. The Durham Ranch, south of Gillette, uses this process with buffalo. They have some great looking rangeland and have significantly increased the plant diversity and livestock carrying capacity.

In southeastern MT, the top three concerns for range and livestock management are water, water, and water. Adequate water development in some systematic fashion is a huge issue for this process to work. The lack of water is probably the single most important reason why people are hesitant to adopt the Savory process.

IMO, the single most important action we can take to minimize the impact of desertification is to manage ground cover. A two inch rain does you no good if it runs off down the creek. An inch of rain will produce about 50# of grass/ac. The 1.5 inch difference between getting .5 inches and 2 inches in the ground is roughly anther 4 days of grazing per acre or about $9.00 per acre in beef production. So, there is economic incentive to tackle the problem of desertification and manage ground cover. The only way to KNOW how much ground cover you have is to establish transects and measure it. You CANNOT and WILL NOT manage what you ARE NOT measuring. Ocular methods are unreliable and not repeatable. There are simple cost-efficient ways of monitoring, either doing it yourself, or hiring someone with of experience in rangeland monitoring. Investing in rangeland monitoring doesn't cost... it pays. Regardless of what you think about Alan Savory, maintaining and increasing ground cover as much as possible is really what is necessary to mitigate the impacts and effects of desertification.

Just a few of my thoughts on the subject.
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Posted by Oddjob (+183) 8 years ago
Thanks, Joe but no apology is necessary. No offense taken.
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supporter
Posted by Richard Bonine, Jr. (+14969) 8 years ago
I am dumbfounded and a little disappointed, that in a local economy that is highly based on grass and the condition thereof, there is not MUCH more discussion about this topic. It is time for some of you "lurkers" to speak up.
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supporter
Posted by MRH (+1495) 8 years ago
I sent you an email and visited with Joe last night at the Mia Borders' concert. You know me well enough to know that I am not going to get into a heated discussion on the web. I am too old for that foolishness.

Luckily, I was able to meet Savory soon after he arrived in the USA in the 70s and attended several of his seminars while I was on the faculty at Texas A&M. He comes across very differently in person that he has in some of his videos and presentations. Holistic management is good for the rangelands.

Richard you made some very good points in your next to the last post. Big factors are precipitation zone and paying attention to management. As it gets drier, the potential for problems from lack of attention increase.

It might be of interest to some of you, that the wagon wheel arrangement of pastures, was used at Fort Keogh and Woodward, OK, in the 1930s when they were determining stocking rates for the Southern and Northern Great Plains. They still exist at Fort Keogh in some pastures.

A point for discussion: Who in the hell does not see improvement, when they pay closer attention to the rangelands and livestock grazing the rangelands? Think there might be a difference in degree of improvement between those that have been managing well vs. those that have been a bit more lackadaisical?

Take care and enjoy your arguments.

[This message has been edited by MRH (7/13/2013)]
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supporter
Posted by MRH (+1495) 8 years ago
Two very interesting view points were published in the October 2013 issue of Rangelands 35(5).

Goodloe, Sid. 2013. Short-duration grazing in retrospect-a practitioner's experience. Rangelands 35:67-71.

Briske, D.D., B.T. Bestelmeyer, J.R. Brown, S.D. Fuhlendorf, and H.W. Polley. 2013. The Savory method can not green deserts or reverse climate change. Rangelands 35:7274.

At one time the local library carried this journal, but I am not sure they currently have a subscription. I have the journal if anyone is interested in reading the articles.
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supporter
Posted by Richard Bonine, Jr. (+14969) 8 years ago
THANKS! I will check out those sources.
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supporter
Posted by Richard Bonine, Jr. (+14969) 8 years ago
In the interest of fairness and full disclosure, here is the article MRH referenced above.

I will say that I have first-hand experience with this grazing system in KS,MO,NM, and WY. We saw measurable improvement every time we used it. I DOES require a significant level of management and planning, maybe more than most people would be willing to provide.


Article Citation:
David D. Briske, Brandon T. Bestelmeyer, Joel R. Brown, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, and H. Wayne Polley (2013) The Savory Method Can Not Green Deserts or Reverse Climate Change. Rangelands: October 2013, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 72-74.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-13-00044.1
View Points
The Savory Method Can Not Green Deserts or Reverse Climate Change
A response to the Allan Savory TED video

David D. Briske , Brandon T. Bestelmeyer , Joel R. Brown , Samuel D. Fuhlendorf , and H. Wayne Polley
Authors are Professor, Dept of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA, [email protected] (Briske); Research Ecologist, USDA-ARS, Jornada Experimental Range and Jornada Basin LTER, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA (Bestelmeyer); Research Scientist, USDA-NRCS, Jornada Experimental Range, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (Brown); Starkey's Distinguished Professor, Dept of Natural Resources Ecology & Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74077, USA (Fuhlendorf ); Research Ecologist, USDA-ARS, Grassland, Soil & Water Research Laboratory, Temple, TX 76502, USA (Polley).



Allan Savory stated that his “planned grazing” method was necessary to reverse two of the world's most challenging and interlinked global change processes—desertification and climate change—in the video “How to green the world's deserts and reverse climate change” that was presented in session 7 at the 2013 TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) Conference on 27 February 2013 in Long Beach, California.i As members of the scientific community, it is our obligation to evaluate the claims made in this video relative to the existing scientific information on this topic.

We find all of Mr Savory's major claims to be unfounded and we express deep concern that they have the potential to undermine proven, practical approaches to rangeland management and restoration that are supported by a global community of practitioners and scientists. The two major assumptions underlying Mr Savory's presentation are alone sufficient grounds for extreme skepticism. First is that humans have misunderstood the basic grassland–grazer relationships for centuries and that only he knows the true nature of this relationship. Second is that use of intensive, concentrated livestock grazing, specific to the method that Mr Savory developed, is the only viable solution to reverse desertification and climate change. In addition to challenging these two highly problematic assumptions, we present a spe-cific critique of three invalid arguments that Mr Savory used to claim that his grazing method can reverse desertification, climate change, and alleviate human suffering and death (19:00 in video).



Invalid Argument 1: All Nonforested Lands Are Degraded
Mr Savory claims that all nonforested land on the planet is degrading and that the reasons for degradation are not understood (2:40 and 7:16 in video). This is absolutely false in both respects because many rangelands are well managed and deserts are a consequence of climate and soil factors, in addition to inappropriate management. He justified this claim by discrediting rangeland science as indicated in his statement that “a century of rangeland management has increased land degradation.” Global rangeland degradation represents a serious concern, but it is often a consequence of increasing human and livestock populations, land fragmentation, changes to land tenure, and poverty, rather than invalid or insufficient scientific information.1 The pressing challenge is to develop broad approaches that can be implemented at multiple levels of social organization to minimize these pervasive and complex issues confronting rangeland sustainability. The tactic of discrediting science detracts from progress toward this goal, because it continues to oversimplify the complexity of rangeland systems and to promote narrowly focused technological solutions.2 However, this ploy is the only alternative available to Mr Savory because his claims are not only unsupported by scientific information, but they are often in direct conflict with it.3



Invalid Argument 2: Rangelands Can Store All Fossil Fuel Carbon in the Atmosphere
Mr Savory's claim that his grazing method can reduce atmospheric carbon (C) concentrations to preindustrial levels (a 30% reduction; 400 vs. 280 ppm CO2) (19:30 in video) is an enormous misrepresentation of the global carbon cycle and climate change science. Fossil fuel combustion, followed distantly by deforestation, land conversion, and degradation are the major contributors to increasing atmospheric C and global warming. Consequently, strategies to offset climate change by increasing C storage in soils and vegetation, described as C sequestration, are extremely limited relative to the current rate of global C emissions. Rangelands are known to be very weak sinks for atmospheric C because plant production is water limited and more C is often released into the atmosphere from soil respiration than is take up by vegetation, especially during drought periods.4

We present a few key values from the global C cycle to identify the inaccuracy of Mr Savory's claims regarding the potential for his grazing method, or any grazing method, to sequester C. In 2012, global greenhouse gas emissions were estimated at about 50 billion metric tons (CO2 equivalents; CO2e).1 In order to offset these current emissions, rangelands would have to sequester approximately 13.6 billion tons of C annually.ii Given that there are about five billion hectares of rangeland globally, it is relatively simple to calculate that each hectare of rangeland would have to sequester an additional two tons of C each year. Credible estimates of the potential for rangeland C sequestration are generally less than 0.25 tons C per hectare per year, which is eight-fold less than Mr Savory's claims would require.

Even this estimate of the large discrepancy in rangeland C sequestration is extremely conservative because of the inherent ecological limitations that control plant production and C sequestration. Grass biomass is about 40% C, so that sequestering 2.5 tons of C per hectare would require that approximately 6.25 tons per hectare (6,250 kg or 12,500 lbs) of dry matter be produced each year. Given that the vast majority of the world's rangelands are arid and semiarid, the opportunities for achieving these levels of plant production are all but impossible.5 In addition, only a portion of the C in plant biomass production is stored in the soil as organic C, while the majority is released back into the atmosphere as CO2 from plant and soil microbial respiration (a cellular biochemical process that releases carbon dioxide during energy production, it is driven largely by temperature and soil water availability6).

Finally, the capacities of soils to sequester C do not increase indefinitely, but they encounter upper limits set by climate, vegetation, and soil characteristics. Most estimates set the C sequestration potential of global rangelands between one and two billion tons per year, a significant amount to be sure, but hardly sufficient to offset current C emissions (50 billion tons in 2012). In addition, rain-fed rangelands are estimated to attain new upper limits on C sequestration in about two decades following major improvements in management strategies. Consequently, currently recommended rangeland management strategies place greater emphasis on the conservation of existing soil C, rather than the sequestration of additional C.7



Invalid Argument 3: Intensive Grazing is Necessary to Prevent Rangeland Degradation
The ecological benefits of concentrated livestock grazing or “hoof action” to rangeland restoration and C sequestration are grossly overstated and without supporting evidence, other than for a few select photos.3 Two of the photos presented in the video were misrepresented. One, occurring within Chaco Culture National Historical Park, was identified in a web comment on the TED talk by Bernard Foy (8 March 2013) as an area that is slowly recovering from a historical period of mismanaged grazing, rather than as a consequence of grazing exclusion as indicated by Mr Savory. Another set of repeat photographs, assembled by one of the authors (Bestelmeyer), were inappropriately associated with Jornada Experimental Range, but were actually of a small patch of desert grassland within the Las Cruces International Airport in southwestern New Mexico (toward the top of the “X” runways, which can be found in Google Earth).

We briefly describe this misrepresentation of the desert grassland example in southern New Mexico to disprove Mr Savory's claim that nonuse by livestock contributes to rangeland degradation. This area has been, as Mr Savory indicates, ungrazed by domestic livestock since the 1950s and there had been an obvious decline in grass cover in spite of grazing exclusion (as of 2003). Wind erosion of sandy soils in the surrounding desertified landscape was proposed as a cause for this decline, rather than grazing exclusion.8 Wind moves large amounts of sand that are deposited on and trigger erosion around remnant plants, causing mortality and limiting reproduction, even in the absence of grazing. This grass patch is a relict within a desertifying landscape that only exists at all because it was fenced.

The pertinent question in this case, however, is: could Mr Savory's grazing method have prevented or now restore this remnant grassland patch? We have tested the effects of intensive grazing and rest from grazing on the dominant grass, black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda), in this desert grassland.9 Grass cover increases dramatically with rest and intensive grazing delays this recovery. Most relevant to Mr Savory's claims, we found no evidence that grass cover had declined with 13 years of rest in a noneroding landscape. Erosion and drought can act suddenly in desert grasslands of the southwestern United States to produce widespread mortality of the dominant perennial grass black grama.10 Fortunately, livestock producers of the region recognize that flexible grazing management is needed to sustain these arid grasslands.

It is also useful to consider the proposed mechanisms by which grazing should benefit perennial grasses like black grama. Many of the soils in this desert grassland are sandy and crusting does not limit infiltration, so the mechanical action of hooves does not increase infiltration. In contrast, the biological crusts implicated as a contributor to desertification by Mr Savory are known to stabilize the sandy soil surface and protect it from wind erosion and carbon loss.11,12 Similarly, experimental data from Botswana confirm the importance of soil biological crusts for cycling rangeland C and specifically indicate that intensive grazing, which destroys these crusts through trampling and burial, will adversely affect C sequestration and storage.13 This research concluded that managed grazing, where soil surfaces are only lightly disturbed, would help maintain a positive C balance in African rangelands.



Our Final Take
Progress regarding rangeland management is being made in many portions of the globe, but there are significant environmental, social, and political challenges to overcome, including human population growth, climate change, poverty, war, and inadequate education. Mr Savory's attempts to divide science and management perspectives and his aggressive promotion of a narrowly focused and widely challenged grazing method only serve to weaken global efforts to promote rangeland restoration and C sequestration. The false sense of hope created by his promises, expressly regarding some of the most desperate communities, are especially troubling. Scien-tific evidence unmistakably demonstrates the inability of Mr Savory's grazing method to reverse rangeland degradation or climate change, and it strongly suggests that it might actually accelerate these processes.



References
1.
United Nations Environment Program. 2012. Greenhouse gas emissions gap widening as nations head to crucial climate talks in Doha. Available at: http://www.unep.org/newscentre/default.aspx?DocumentID=2698&ArticleID=9335. Accessed 24 June 2013.
2.
Briske, D. D. , N. F. Sayre , L. Huntsinger , M. Fernandez-Gimenez , B. Budd , and J. D. Derner . 2011. Origin, persistence, and resolution of the rotational grazing debate: integrating human dimensions into rangeland research. Rangeland Ecology & Management 64:325–334. [Abstract]
3.
Briske, D. D. , J. D. Derner , J. R. Brown , S. D. Fuhlendorf , W. R. Teague , K. M. Havstad , R. L. Gillen , A. J. Ash , and W. D. Willms . 2008. Rotational grazing on rangelands: reconciliation of perception and experimental evidence. Rangeland Ecology & Management 61:3–17. [Abstract]
4.
Svejcar, T. , R. Angell , J. A. Bradford , W. Dugas , W. Emmerich , A. B. Frank , T. Gilmanov , M. Haferkamp , D. A. Johnson , H. Mayeux , P. Mielnick , J. Morgan , N. Z. Saliendra , G. E. Schuman , P. L. Sims , and K. Snyder . 2008. Carbon fluxes on North American rangelands. Rangeland Ecology & Management 61:465–474. [Abstract]
5.
Yang, Y. , J. Fang , W. Ma , and W. Wang . 2008. Relationship between variability in aboveground net primary production and precipitation in global grasslands. Geophysical Research Letters 35:L23710.
6.
Huxman, T. E. , K. A. Knyder , D. Tissue , A. J. Leffler , K. Ogle , W. T. Pockman , D. R. Sandquist , D. L. Potts , and S. Schwinning . 2004. Precipitation pulses and carbon fluxes in semiarid and arid ecosystems. Oecologia 141:254–268.
7.
Booker, K. , L. Huntsinger , J. W. Bartolome , N. F. Sayre , and W. Stewart . 2013. What can ecological science tell us about opportunities for carbon sequestration on arid rangelands in the United State? Global Environmental Change 23:240–251.
8.
Bestelmeyer, B. T. , D. A. Trujillo , A. J. Tugel , and K. M. Havstad . 2006. A multi-scale classification of vegetation dynamics in arid lands: What is the right scale for models, monitoring, and restoration? Journal of Arid Environments 65:296–318.
9.
Bestelmeyer, B. T. , M. C. Duniway , D. K. James , L. M. Burkett , and K. M. Havstad . 2013. A test of critical thresholds and their indicators in a desertification-prone ecosystem: more resilience than we thought. Ecology Letters 16:339–345.
10.
Bestelmeyer, B. T. , A. M. Ellison , W. R. Fraser , K. B. Gorman , S. J. Holbrook , C. M. Laney , M. D. Ohman , D. P. C. Peters , F. C. Pillsbury , A. Rassweiler , R. J. Schmitt , and S. Sharma . 2011. Analysis of abrupt transitions in ecological systems. Ecosphere 2:art129.
11.
Marticorena, B. , G. Bergametti , D. Gillette , and J. Belnap . 1997. Factors controlling threshold friction velocity in semiarid and arid areas of the United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 102:23277–23287.
12.
Barger, N. N. , J. E. Herrick , J. Van Zee , and J. Belnap . 2006. Impacts of biological soil crust disturbance and composition on C and N loss from water erosion. Biogeochemistry 77:247–263.
13.
Thomas, A. D. 2012. Impact of grazing intensity on seasonal variations in soil organic carbon and soil CO2 efflux in two semiarid grasslands in southern Botswana. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 367:3076–3086.
iA video of the talk is available online at: http://www.ted.com/talks/allan_savory_how_to_green_the_world_s_deserts_and_reverse_climate_change.html

ii The atomic weight of CO2 is 44: carbon = 12, oxygen = 16. Therefore CO2 = 12 + 16 + 16 = 44. For our purposes, 13.6 billion tons of C must be stored in the soil to offset 50 billion tons of atmospheric CO2 (50 × 0.27).


http://srmjournals.org/do...13-00044.1

[This message has been edited by Richard Bonine, Jr. (11/12/2013)]
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supporter
Posted by MRH (+1495) 8 years ago
I thought they were both pretty good reading, and brought out some valid points. The first one is from a rancher, and he discusses some of the variations that he has used that Savory does not necessarily agree with. One must remember they are view points.

Richard, I usually do not publish articles from a journal on the internet.
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