For those UNLEARNED who like beating on ODDJOB
Posted by Rob Shipley (+407) 2 years ago
Income Tax, provided in the 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution APPEARS nowhere, nowhere, nowhere, nowhere, in the Congressional Record of the U.S. Legislature; thereby, it was NEVER ratified in either house of the U.S. Congress. On December 23, 1913, copies of it were simply mailed to the state legislatures of the then forty-eight (48) states for STATE RATIFICATION as per the Constitution by SUPER CROOK Knox. GOOGLE Knox and 16th Amendment for the truth. In 102 years there have only been 13 of the necessary 36 states (plurality is 75% 36 of 48) that have EVER EVER EVER EVER EVER ratified the 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
RIGHT HERE AND RIGHT NOW............I will pay One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) in cash money on the Courthouse of Custer County steps to anyone PROVING me wrong.

Rob Shipley
Top
-1
Posted by nativemc (+297) 2 years ago
According to the United States Government Printing Office, the following states ratified the amendment:[32]
1.Alabama (August 10, 1909)
2.Kentucky (February 8, 1910)
3.South Carolina (February 19, 1910)
4.Illinois (March 1, 1910)
5.Mississippi (March 7, 1910)
6.Oklahoma (March 10, 1910)
7.Maryland (April 8, 1910)
8.Georgia (August 3, 1910)
9.Texas (August 16, 1910)
10.Ohio (January 19, 1911)
11.Idaho (January 20, 1911)
12.Oregon (January 23, 1911)
13.Washington (January 26, 1911)
14.Montana (January 27, 1911)
15.Indiana (January 30, 1911)
16.California (January 31, 1911)
17.Nevada (January 31, 1911)
18.South Dakota (February 1, 1911)
19.Nebraska (February 9, 1911)
20.North Carolina (February 11, 1911)
21.Colorado (February 15, 1911)
22.North Dakota (February 17, 1911)
23.Michigan (February 23, 1911)
24.Iowa (February 24, 1911)
25.Kansas (March 2, 1911)
26.Missouri (March 16, 1911)
27.Maine (March 31, 1911)
28.Tennessee (April 7, 1911)
29.Arkansas (April 22, 1911), after having previously rejected the amendment
30.Wisconsin (May 16, 1911)
31.New York (July 12, 1911)
32.Arizona (April 3, 1912)
33.Minnesota (June 11, 1912)
34.Louisiana (June 28, 1912)
35.West Virginia (January 31, 1913)
36.Delaware (February 3, 1913)

Ratification (by the requisite 36 states) was completed on February 3, 1913 with the ratification by Delaware. The amendment was subsequently ratified by the following states, bringing the total number of ratifying states to forty-two[33] of the forty-eight then existing:
37. New Mexico (February 3, 1913)38. Wyoming (February 3, 1913)39. New Jersey (February 4, 1913)40. Vermont (February 19, 1913)41. Massachusetts (March 4, 1913)42. New Hampshire (March 7, 1913), after rejecting the amendment on March 2, 1911
The legislatures of the following states rejected the amendment without ever subsequently ratifying it:
ConnecticutRhode IslandUtahVirginia[34]
Top
+1
supporter
Posted by Gunnar Emilsson (+10077) 2 years ago
I think you owe nativemc a grand, Rob.
Top
+2
Posted by nativemc (+297) 2 years ago
Please just take the $1000.00 to the Food Bank and donate it there. I will be looking for a Thank You from the Food Bank to Mr. Shipley in the paper. Would be nice if the Star ran a picture of Rob handing the money to the director of the Food Bank.
Top
+4
supporter
Posted by Bridgier (+7624) 2 years ago
United States Government Printing Office

YOU'VE PROVED NOTHING
Top
Posted by nativemc (+297) 2 years ago
16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Federal Income Tax (1913)

Far-reaching in its social as well as its economic impact, the income tax amendment became part of the Constitution by a curious series of events culminating in a bit of political maneuvering that went awry.

The financial requirements of the Civil War prompted the first American income tax in 1861. At first, Congress placed a flat 3-percent tax on all incomes over $800 and later modified this principle to include a graduated tax. Congress repealed the income tax in 1872, but the concept did not disappear.

After the Civil War, the growing industrial and financial markets of the eastern United States generally prospered. But the farmers of the south and west suffered from low prices for their farm products, while they were forced to pay high prices for manufactured goods. Throughout the 1860s, 1870s, and 1880s, farmers formed such political organizations as the Grange, the Greenback Party, the National Farmers’ Alliance, and the People’s (Populist) Party. All of these groups advocated many reforms (see the Interstate Commerce Act) considered radical for the times, including a graduated income tax.

In 1894, as part of a high tariff bill, Congress enacted a 2-percent tax on income over $4,000. The tax was almost immediately struck down by a five-to-four decision of the Supreme Court, even though the Court had upheld the constitutionality of the Civil War tax as recently as 1881. Although farm organizations denounced the Court’s decision as a prime example of the alliance of government and business against the farmer, a general return of prosperity around the turn of the century softened the demand for reform. Democratic Party Platforms under the leadership of three-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, however, consistently included an income tax plank, and the progressive wing of the Republican Party also espoused the concept.

In 1909 progressives in Congress again attached a provision for an income tax to a tariff bill. Conservatives, hoping to kill the idea for good, proposed a constitutional amendment enacting such a tax; they believed an amendment would never received ratification by three-fourths of the states. Much to their surprise, the amendment was ratified by one state legislature after another, and on February 25, 1913, with the certification by Secretary of State Philander C. Knox, the 16th amendment took effect. Yet in 1913, due to generous exemptions and deductions, less than 1 percent of the population paid income taxes at the rate of only 1 percent of net income.

This document settled the constitutional question of how to tax income and, by so doing, effected dramatic changes in the American way of life.
Top
supporter
Posted by Richard Bonine, Jr. (+13412) 2 years ago
This is interesting...

"The 16th amendment had been sent out in 1909 to the state governors for ratification by the state legislatures after having been passed by Congress. There were 48 states at that time, and three-fourths, or 36, of them were required to give their approval in order for it to be ratified. The process took almost the whole term of the Taft administration, from 1909 to 1913.

Knox had received responses from 42 states when he declared the 16th amendment ratified on February 25, 1913, just a few days before leaving office to make way for the administration of Woodrow Wilson. Knox acknowledged that four of those states (Utah, Conn, R.I. and N.H.) had rejected it, and he counted 38 states as having approved it. We will now examine some of the key evidence Bill Benson found regarding the approval of the amendment in many of those states.

In Kentucky, the legislature acted on the amendment without even having received it from the governor (the governor of each state was to transmit the proposed amendment to the state legislature). The version of the amendment that the Kentucky legislature made up and acted upon omitted the words "on income" from the text, so they weren't even voting on an income tax! When they straightened that out (with the help of the governor), the Kentucky senate rejected the amendment. Yet Philander Knox counted Kentucky as approving it!

In Oklahoma, the legislature changed the wording of the amendment so that its meaning was virtually the opposite of what was intended by Congress, and this was the version they sent back to Knox. Yet Knox counted Oklahoma as approving it, despite a memo from his chief legal counsel, Reuben Clark, that states were not allowed to change it in any way.

Attorneys who have studied the subject have agreed that Kentucky and Oklahoma should not have been counted as approvals by Philander Knox, and, moreover, if any state could be shown to have violated its own state constitution or laws in its approval process, then that state's approval would have to be thrown out. That gets us past the "presumptive conclusion" argument, which says that the actions of an executive official cannot be judged by a court, and admits that Knox could be wrong.

If we subtract Kentucky and Oklahoma from the 38 approvals above, the count of valid approvals falls to 36, the exact number needed for ratification. If any more states can be shown to have had invalid approvals, the 16th amendment must be regarded as null and void.

The state constitution of Tennessee prohibited the state legislature from acting on any proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution sent by Congress until after the next election of state legislators. The intent, of course, is to give the proposed amendment a chance to become an issue in the state legislative elections so that the people can have a voice in determining the outcome. It also provides a cooling off period to reduce the tendency to approve an idea just because it happens to be the moment's trend. You've probably already guessed that the Tennessee legislature did not hold off on voting for the amendment until after the next election, and you'd be right - they didn't; hence, they acted upon it illegally before they were authorized to do so. They also violated their own state constitution by failing to read the resolution on three different days as prescribed by Article II, Section 18. These state constitutional violations make their approval of the amendment null and void. Their approval is and was invalid, and it brings the number of approving states down to 35, one less than required for ratification.

Texas and Louisiana violated provisions in their state constitutions prohibiting the legislatures from empowering the federal government with any additional taxing authority. Now the number is down to 33.

Twelve other states, besides Tennessee, violated provisions in their constitutions requiring that a bill be read on three different days before voting on it. This is not a trivial requirement. It allows for a cooling off period; it enables members who may be absent one day to be present on another; it allows for a better familiarity with, and understanding of, the measure under consideration, since some members may not always read a bill or resolution before voting on it (believe it or not!). States violating this procedure were: Mississippi, Ohio, Arkansas, Minnesota, New Mexico, West Virginia, Indiana, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota, Colorado, and Illinois. Now the number is reduced to 21 states legally ratifying the amendment.

When Secretary Knox transmitted the proposed amendment to the states, official certified and sealed copies were sent. Likewise, when state results were returned to Knox, it was required that the documents, including the resolution that was actually approved, be properly certified, signed, and sealed by the appropriate official(s). This is no more than any ordinary citizen has to do in filing any legal document, so that it's authenticity is assured; otherwise it is not acceptable and is meaningless. How much more important it is to authenticate a constitutional amendment! Yet a number of states did not do this, returning uncertified, unsigned, and/or unsealed copies, and did not rectify their negligence even after being reminded and warned by Knox. The most egregious offenders were Ohio, California, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Minnesota - which did not send any copy at all, so Knox could not have known what they even voted on! Since four of these states were already disqualified above, California is now subtracted from the list of valid approvals, reducing it to 20.

These last five states, along with Kentucky and Oklahoma, have particularly strong implications with regard to the fraud charge against Knox, in that he cannot be excused for not knowing they shouldn't have been counted. Why was he in such a hurry? Why did he not demand that they send proper documentation? They never did.

Further review would make the list dwindle down much more, but with the number down to 20, sixteen fewer than required, this is a suitable place to rest, without getting into the matter of several states whose constitutions limited the taxing authority of their legislatures, which could not give to the federal govern authority they did not have.

The results from the six states Knox had not heard from at the time he made his proclamation do not affect the conclusion that the amendment was not legally ratified. Of those six: two (Virginia and Pennsylvania) he never did hear from, because they ignored the proposed amendment; Florida rejected it; two others (Vermont and Massachusetts) had rejected it much earlier by recorded votes, but, strangely, submitted to the Secretary within a few days of his ratification proclamation that they had passed it (without recorded votes); West Virginia had purportedly approved it at the end of January 1913, but its notification had not yet been received (remember that West Virginia had violated its own constitution, as noted above)."

http://www.givemeliberty....tified.htm
Top
supporter
Posted by Bridgier (+7624) 2 years ago
Benson was a bit of a fraud though, so I'm not sure I'd take anything he said without some very well-attributed citations.
Top
Posted by Rob Shipley (+407) 2 years ago
Who is super naive here? Who *owns* the GPO? Even if this *LIE* is correct, and it is NOT; 32 is still not 36....75% of the 48.
Top
-1
Posted by Rob Shipley (+407) 2 years ago
Native, all of YOUR 32 were BEFORE the 16th Amendment was even crafted, duh? It wasn't even written and processed until late December, 1913..........and you list this string of crap..........1990,1910,1911............are you OK ?
Top
-1
Posted by nativemc (+297) 2 years ago
It is nice to know that facts do not disturb you Mr. Shipley. I did not really expect you to believe this. I just wanted to see if your would back out on your offer and you did. Thank you.
Top
+1
Posted by Rob Shipley (+407) 2 years ago
Gunnar, Why oppose truth? I told you people to SHOW me truth that the 16th Amendment was coursed through the U.S. Congress, which it was not. Because had it been.......it WOULD HAVE HAD TO HAVE BEEN entered into the Congressional Record. Instead, Native just GOOGLED some crap that was written by some IRS thug, that is all. SHOW ME THE PROOF and I will hand over the $1,000 cash. GOOGLE and locate in the Record the exact dates of committee, signing, mailing and ratification. FROM IN THE RECORD. Do it.
Top
-1
founder
supporter
Posted by Tucker Bolton (+2842) 2 years ago
Bridgier, I love the stuff that Benson did in the 70's and 80's. Even though he is a Jehovah's witness {I wonder if he in in the witness depression program}. He has been married to the same woman since 1965 though I am sure he has had many women on the road and is never without a condom. I wonder what became of his partner Hedges.
Top
+1
-2
supporter
Posted by Bridgier (+7624) 2 years ago
Who could downvote such an epic reply? WHO?
Top
+1